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Woodwork 

Winter 2013-2014

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Queen Anne Footstool & Cabriole Leg

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Old styles of furniture can still speak to us loud and clear today. The Queen Anne style, popular in America from 1725 to 1760, is an elegant language of flowing lines and reverse curves. This footstool is a small-scale example of a very elaborate style. If you’ve always wanted to try your hand at cabriole legs, which are one of the defining characteristics of Queen Anne furniture, this project is a great place to begin.


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On a historical note, this footstool is not a copy of an authentic antique. Footstools were not common in the 18th century. I’ve made many copies of genuine Queen Anne chairs, however, so I scaled down some of my favorite cabriole legs and rails and incorporated their best features into this footstool. Making the legs is the hardest part of this project, so I’ve gone into detail on how to do it in “Cabriole Leg,” below.


Tools and materials

One appeal of this style is that you get to use both machines and hand tools. You’ll need a bandsaw to make the legs in addition to the basic machines for working solid wood: a tablesaw, jointer and planer. I use a tablesaw tenoning jig and a mortising machine to make the joints, but there are many other ways you can do it. You’ll also need a router to make rabbets and the molding that runs around the top of the stool. As for hand tools, I turn to a small number of favorites (see “Cabriole Leg,” below).


Chamfer the inside edge of the rails. This makes them appear thinner from the outside. Use a router table and chamfer bit to remove most of the wood, then use a chisel to get into the corners. Finally, rabbet the top edge of all the rails.

Click any image to view a larger version.


Shape the leg with hand tools. For complete how-to information, see “Cabriole Leg,” below.


Glue up the whole stool in one shot. Measure from corner to corner to make sure the diagonals are equal. If they’re not, pull the stool square with a clamp across the long diagonal. A beveled block slid over the clamp makes it easier.


Fit a corner block around each leg. Plane or sand the block so it fits tightly against both rails. Drill screw holes in the block before you glue it in place.

 

 

Cabriole Leg

Step-by-step instructions for making an elegant leg.

By Alf Sharp


Cabriole legs revolutionized furniture in the early 18th-century and are still vital today. They look as if they could come to life at any time and walk away with an impossibly heavy load. Part of their vitality is an air of mystery. They puzzle every woodworker who first sees them and asks, “How do you make curves like that?”

The secret to making cabriole legs is actually quite simple: One pattern is used twice on adjacent sides of a square leg blank. I’ve got a great technique for sawing that avoids all the hassle of reattaching the waste pieces in order to cut the second side. The hard part of making a truly graceful leg is finding a good pattern. I’ve made one for a footstool that’s the result of looking at many good, bad and indifferent legs. The curves of this leg have just the right amount of spring.

The first time I tried making a cabriole leg the results weren’t so great. You’ll probably have a similar experience. So glue up some thinner wood and make practice legs before you cut into the thick, expensive wood that a good cabriole leg should be made from. Use a hardwood like cherry, walnut or mahogany for a practice leg to get the feel of how your hand tools should work.

 

Power tools and hand tools

Power tools and hand tools You’ll need two power tools for making this cabriole leg: a lathe and a bandsaw. Many cabriole legs don’t have turned feet, but using a lathe speeds the process. Install a 1/4", 4 to 6 teeth-per-inch (tpi) blade in your bandsaw. This relatively coarse blade may leave a slightly rough surface, but that’s fine because you’ll continue to shape the entire leg with hand tools.

You won’t need many hand tools, but each one has to be very sharp. I use a 1" or wider butt chisel, a mallet, a flatfaced spokeshave, a medium-coarse and a fine half-round rasp, a half-round file and a cabinet scraper. Rasps and files can be expensive, but I’ve found that an inexpensive carpenter’s 4-in-1 rasp can substitute for all of them.


Begin shaping the leg with hand tools. Remove large chunks of waste with a chisel and a mallet. I prefer a butt chisel because its short length affords more control. Firmly support the leg in a bar clamp held in your vise or clamp the leg between bench dogs.


Use a medium rasp to slightly round the arrises at the ankle and below the wing. (An arris is an intersection of two planes). It’s better to take off too little than too much at this point (see the cross section of the foot, Fig. D).


Round and smooth the leg with a spokeshave (see the cross sections of leg, Fig. D). Shave with the grain, take light cuts and follow the curve of the leg. Check your progress every few strokes by running your hand down the leg. Then you won’t inadvertently flatten out the curve. You’ll now have a leg that has many narrow facets on it.


Remove the rasp marks with a scraper. This works extremely well on the end grain of the foot and it’s faster than using coarse sandpaper! Keep the scraper moving around the leg so you don’t make any flat areas. Once both your hand and eye tell you the leg is right, sand with 100, 150 and finally 220- grit paper.


This story originally appeared in American Woodworker June 2000, issue #80.

June 2000, issue #80

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