Choosing Hand Planes
Match the size to the job — that's the key
Hand planes come in a bewildering variety of sizes.
Why are there so many? I’ll help explain this mystery
by dividing the field into four groups, in order of
size: block planes, smoothing planes, jack planes,
and leveling planes. I’ll show you what the planes
in each group are used for, and recommend
two different starter sets.
Each group best serves a particular purpose.
Smoothing planes, for example, are
specifically designed to make wood as
smooth as silk, ready for a finish. In
general, length is the key to understanding
a group. Picking a plane
at random, you could use it for
most any task, but pick a
plane that’s the correct
length and you’ll get the
job done much faster,
with better results.
Block planes are often associated with carpenters
and do-it-yourselfers because they’re inexpensive and
small enough to fit in a toolbox or toolbelt. They
have important roles in the woodshop, too. A highquality
block plane can do amazing work, and may
become one of your favorite tools.
Types. Standard-angle block planes are the most
common. Their blades are bedded at about 20
degrees, with the bevel facing up. If the blade is
sharpened at 25 degrees, its effective cutting angle is
45 degrees, which is similar to larger planes. In a lowangle
block plane, the blade is bedded at about 12
degrees, resulting in a much lower cutting angle.
Pocket-sized planes have a standard bedding angle;
what distinguishes these planes is their ultra-small
size and light weight.
Uses. Block planes are well-suited for planing end
grain or for fitting drawers and doors, where part of
the assembly is end grain. Planing end grain requires
more force than planing face grain and puts more
stress on the blade. Block plane blades chatter less
because their bevels face up, not down, as is the case
with most larger planes. Bevel up, the blade’s tip has
additional support from the plane’s body. Planing
end grain using a low-angle block plane requires less
force than using a standard-angle block plane.
Block planes have more uses beyond planing end
grain, though. They’re very comfortable to hold in
one hand for shaping parts and chamfering edges. A
pocket plane is easy to carry around in your apron.
Click any image to view a larger version.
Block planes are designed for cutting end grain, such as
the stile of this door frame. Their compact size also
makes them perfect for planing with one hand.
A smoothing plane is a serious hand-tool user’s best
friend. Set to cut a tissue-thin shaving, it can make a
board feel smooth as silk. The wood’s grain will pop
in a way that you can’t achieve through sanding alone.
Types. The No. 4 size is the type most commonly
used, although the larger No. 4-1/2 is gaining in
popularity. The 4-1/2 is heavier than the 4, and that
added mass makes it easier to maintain momentum
while planing difficult woods. A No. 4 blade is 2-in.
wide, while a No. 4-1/2 blade is 2-3/8-in. wide. A No.
3 smoothing plane is lighter and narrower than a
No. 4. It’s perfect for a user with less muscle power
because its shavings are narrower. The blade of a No.
3 is 1-3/4-in. wide.
Uses. Smoothing planes prepare boards for finishing.
Their relatively short length makes them
ideal for planing a wide board or a glued-up top
because they can follow slight irregularities in a
board’s surface and still make a long, continuous
thin shaving, the gold standard in smoothing work.
Longer planes require a board to be flatter in order
to make continuous shavings (flatter than need be,
quite often), so these planes are less practical to use
in preparing wood for finishing. Fine-tuning a
smoothing plane can really pay off: on many woods,
you can make a surface so smooth that little or no
scraping or sanding is required.
Smoothing planes take the place of power sanders.
They’re used for making a surface ultra-smooth and
ready for finishing.
“He’s a jack of all trades, but master of none.”
That expression perfectly describes a jack plane, and
helps explain the origin of its name. A jack plane is
longer than a smoothing plane, so it’s not as efficient
in smoothing a large top because it takes more
strokes to cut down to the low spots. It’s shorter than
a leveling plane, so it’s more difficult to use in making
an edge straight or truing a large surface. But it
can smooth or level reasonably well.
Types. The classic jack plane is a No. 5. Its blade
is 2 in. wide, the same as a No. 4, but its body is about
5 in. longer. A No. 5-1/2 is longer, wider, and heavier
than a No. 5. Like a No. 4-1/2, this additional
mass makes it easier to plane difficult woods. The
No. 5-1/4 is shorter, narrower and lighter than a No.
5. It was designed for youngsters learning to work
wood in shop classes, and is often referred to as a
manual-training plane or a junior jack.
Uses. You can smooth or level with a jack plane–it
just takes a bit longer than using a more specialized
smoothing or leveling plane. If you sharpen a jack
plane’s blade with a pronounced curve, this tool is
perfect for hogging off a lot of wood fast, in any situation.
A jack plane is also useful for evening joints,
such as a table leg and rail, because this operation
combines both leveling and smoothing.
Jack planes can both level and smooth a surface. They’re
useful for evening up one piece with another, such as this
breadboard end on a tabletop.
Leveling planes are long, wide, and heavy. They
have two specific purposes: straightening edges and
flattening large surfaces. Accuracy is the goal in
both situations, and that requires a plane with a
long, flat sole.
Types. The leveling plane most often used these
days is the No. 7, more commonly known as a jointer
plane. As its name implies, a jointer is best suited
for straightening edges prior to joining them together.
A No. 6 plane is the same width as a No. 7, but
about 4 in. shorter. The No. 6 is best suited for leveling
the majority of a large surface. It’s commonly known as a fore plane
(because its used before a smoothing plane, which
finishes the job) or a trying plane (because it makes
a surface true and flat). A No. 8 plane is a behemoth:
it’s longer, wider, and heavier than a No. 7.
Uses. One plane, either a No. 6 or a No. 7, can be
used for jointing and truing, although having both
is ideal. If you have only one, it’s best to have two
blades. Jointing requires a blade that is sharpened
dead straight across; truing is most efficiently done
with a blade that’s sharpened with a slight curve. A
No. 8 is so large that it can be a bit unwieldy, but it’s
the perfect plane for jointing a long, wide edge, and
useful for big jobs such as fitting an entryway door.
Leveling planes are used to make edges straight, such as
these two boards, which will be glued together. Leveling
planes are also used to make large surfaces flat and true.
Basic Two-Plane Set
A No. 5 jack plane and a standard-angle block
plane will serve you well in most situations.
You’ll find dozens of uses for the block plane,
taking off a little bit here or there on your projects.
With the jack, you can do everything a
smaller or larger plane can do, such as straightening
an edge, smoothing a surface, or evening
up a joint. The job will just take a bit longer.
Advanced Three-Plane Set
This is a good starter set for a woodworker who
wants to really enjoy what hand planes can do.
Each plane has a specialized purpose. The low
angle block plane excels at cutting end grain; the
leveling plane (which can be either a No. 6 or a
No. 7) joints edges and flattens a large surface;
the smoothing plane (either a No. 4 or a No. 4-
1/2) can make wood look so good that it hardly
needs a finish.